Vsqve ad finem is a Latin motto meaning "till the end" used by Gladiators and Roman legionaries in reference to battle, implying a willingness to keep fighting until death. Calcio Fiorentino is both an early form of soccer, originated in the 16th century in Italy, and an extremely violent game which combines elements of soccer, rugby and bare-knuckle fighting into one brutal and bloody event, in an apparent free-for-all of physical violence. Born as an early form of football during the Renaissance in Italy, it originated from the roman harpastum (which literally means "to rip off") and is played on a sand covered field in teams of 27 on each side, allowing tactics such as punching, elbowing, and choking: martial arts are permitted but it is prohibited for more than one player to attack an opponent. The match inspiring the modern reenactment took place in 1530, when the Florentines besieged by the troops of Charles V played Calcio as an act of defiance against the Emperor. Currently the games are held in Piazza Santa Croce in June, on the occasion of the celebration of the city's patron, St John the Baptist.